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ADHD: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

ADHD

ADHD (Attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder) is a disorder caused by differences in brain anatomy. The affected person lacks focus, wanders off and is most of the times disorderly in what he or she does. The person may also move about constantly without aim. He expresses excessive talk and is extremely restless in most cases. The person is also prone to making an irrational decision what out taking to account the consequences of his decisions.

What are the symptoms of ADHD?

The most common signs of ADHD is hyperactivity, lack of focus and inattention. These symptoms may inhibit themselves differently in individuals. The most viral symptoms in young kids are usually hyper-activeness. Such kids have recurring behavior issues in school and at home.

Most people will show only one sign of ADHD, while others will show both attention deficit and hyperactivity. This symptoms interfere with their school and work life in the long run. The most common symptoms in these people are:

  • Have trouble managing time
  • disorganized
  • Have a hard time remembering things and paying attention
  • Prone to frequently shifting focus
  • Have a hard time getting things started or done.

Persons with inattention symptoms may often show the following:

  • Unrelated stimuli usually distract them.
  • These people are forgetful. They forget to attend to routine activities such as running errands and keeping appointments.
  • They dislike activities that need detailed focus. May avoid homework and reading through lengthy texts or filling lengthy forms.
  • Seem not to be listening when spoken to directly
  • They show an inability to keep schedules. They are prone to time mismanagement and lack the ability to do tasks in an organized sequence.
  • Quickly lose focus of what they are doing. They do not follow instructions in school or in the workplace, which makes them sidetracked easily.

People with hyperactivity-impulsive symptoms may often:

  • Show little to no sense of danger
  • Act without thinking
  • Talk excessively
  • Be in constant motion
  • Leave their seating positions when they should be seated.
  • Interrupt conversations and other activities
  • Answer before questioning. They can interrupt another person’s speech or complete someone else sentences.
  • Unable to engage in activities quietly.

Kids with ADHD may also show other symptoms that are closely related. They include:

  • Anxiety disorder: kids with ADHD have a higher risk of anxiety and depression. It causes them to be nervous all the time. They usually exhibit accelerated heartbeat and constant sweating.
  • Sleeping problems: have trouble finding sleep or show irregular sleeping patterns.
  • Sensory processing issues: Kids have trouble handling sensory inputs. Overwhelmed by noises, taste, smell, and texture.
  • Dyscalculia and dysgraphia: They may have a hard time learning math and how to write.
  • Non-verbal learning skills: Kids with ADHD struggle to grasp social skills. They may have a hard time making new friends and keeping relationships.
  • Opposition defiant disorder: this is usually a disruptive behavior towards the authority, particularly teachers and parents.
  • Conduct disorder: they show extreme anti-social behaviors. They can include stealing, harming people and fighting.

Diagnosis of ADHD

There are no blood tests done to diagnose you with ADHD, the experts use a couple of techniques such as questionnaires and clinical interview. The pediatrician will ask the parent detailed questions about the kid’s behavior both in school and at home.

For proper diagnosis, one needs to visit a psychiatrist, psychologist or a pediatrician. For you to be diagnosed with the disorder, the symptoms must have been visible for a long time and are chronic. They should interfere with your everyday schedules.

Diagnosis in children

The doctor makes sure that the symptoms are not caused by other ailments. For young children, they undergo diagnosis during their elementary education. For adults, the doctor must ascertain that the symptoms were present prior to the age of 12.

ADHD symptoms appear early in life. They can be visible from the age of 3 through to adulthood. Quiet and well-behaved children often go through their childhood undiagnosed. Undiagnosed ADHD can later manifest itself in their adult life. They can have a history of failed relationships, poor academic performance, and problems at work.

Symptoms of ADHD, change over time. A kid may show hyperactivity but as he or she approaches elementary school inattention symptoms to become more prevalent. As they approach adolescence they may struggle with social skills. They have trouble making friends and interacting with others.

What are the cases of ADHD?

The primary and exact cause is not known. But a couple of factors can facilitate the development of the disorder in children. They include:

Genetics

The disorder tends to run through the family. An ADHD parent is likely to bring up children who have the disorder. However, you cannot trace the cause to one gene defect. It is a complex process that is hard to explain.

Brain function and structure

Children with ADHD have several brain difference compared to those who don’t have the disorder. Research shows that the brain of children with ADHD takes almost two to three years longer to mature. Studies also show that the brain of children with ADHD has certain areas that are smaller than others. Their brain has low levels of neurotransmitters.

Other causes may include:

  • Drinking alcohol or smoking in the pregnancy period
  • Exposure to toxins at a young age.
  • Brain damage after birth or in the womb.
  • Premature birth.

Treatment of ADHD

Medication

The most common medication for this disorder is stimulants. It is highly recommended as it increases the brains dopamine and norepinephrine which are essentially used in thinking and attention. They are considered safe but may lead to high blood pressure and anxiety if misused.

Therapy

Medications regulate the brain’s neurological structure while therapy addresses the behavior. A kid’s overall behavior is changed through behavior therapy. The parents and the teachers are to praise positive behavior but discourage negative behavior.

Nutrition

Even though nutrition plays an insignificant role in ADHD, parents with kids with the disorder have found that simple nutritional changes have a significant effect on ADHD.

According to the Harvard Health Blog, people who eat unprocessed foods, vegetables, fruits and lean meat are more likely to have better moods and less prone to mood disorders.

 

 

 

 

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